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   EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY 
 
Officially the ESA was established the May 30, 1975 

The organization includes the following countries: FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, GREAT BRITAIN, SPAIN, BELGIUM, DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, GREECE, AUSTRIA, NORWAY, FINLAND, PORTUGAL, AUSTRIA, IRELAND, LUXEMBOURG.

                                 STRUCTURE OF THE ESA

HEADQUARTERS located at Paris , comprises the Office of the Director General, all the various directorates of ongoing projects and Centers-Labs spread across Europe and worldwide, as well as the various government policies. The Council consists of representatives of the Member States designated by the respective competent ministries for the space.

                                           ESA OFFICES

 BRUSSELS, MOSCOW, WASHINGTON, HOUSTON, FRENCH GUIANA 

                                              CENTERS     

ESOC -European space operation centre. Darmstadt (Germany) Control and monitor all satellites and probes that Esa has in orbit.

ESTEC – European space research and technology centre Noordwjk Holland 1) mechanical workshops and thermal research 2) laboratories for materials  and microgravity 3) Telecommunication Laboratories 4) laboratory Robotics

ESRIN – European space research institute at Frascati (RM) Organic. In Italy is made a collection, cataloguing and distribution to all Member States, the data collected by Esa satellites and probes. Are dealt with public relations

 EAC - European astronaut centre. Cologne (Germany) European space Corps Training Centre.

ESAC - European Space Astronomy Centre in Villafranca Del Castillo, near Madrid, Spain. Science Operations Centre for astronomical-type missions. uropean space operation centre.

 
 

    GUIANA SPACE CENTRE 

The Ariane is a European carrier is most widely used by ESA for lunching into orbit satellites . The launch site is located at Kourou in French Guiana near the equator. The base is able to launch the following carriers: Ariane, Vega and Soyuz ST. The CNES founded the base in 1964 and celebrated in 1965. The first successful launch dates back to 3/10/1970 with the Diamant rocket-b (three-stage launcher) as a vector of German  satellite, the "German Dial".

The other vectors used by ESA are the Space Shuttle and other American rockets such as Delta II, in addition to the Russian Soyuz.

 

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION ISS

The most complex project involving almost all world's top space agezy. ESA has achieved : two American moduls Harmony (node 2) and Tranquility (3) with the Cupola, the science module Columbus, the MPLM (Leonardo, Raphael, Donatello) and ATV (Jules Verne, Johannes Kepler, Edoardo Amaldi ). Also it is planned the realization of robotic arm ERA (european robotic arm) docked to a Russian module.

             Columbus

 In-orbit Assembly of various modules must be completed by the 2011/2012.                         THE ISS

                                                                                  ESA ROCKETS VECTORS 

                  PATCH

astrolab.jpg

Download point patch ESA missions

                  POSTER

 Cassini Huygens.jpg

Download point ESA posters

                   

                                               ORIGINS

 About 1950 there was an awareness of the need for a European Space Agency The leading supporters were the france Pierre Auger and Italian Edoardo Amaldi. In 1960 they formed the first group GEERS (Groupe d'Etude European de Recherches Spatiales), which was followed by other groups. In 1964 he detected the ELDO (European Launch Development Organization) to develop delivery systems and ESRO (European Space Research Organization) to develop the spacecraft (Spacecraft) as satellites, probes and others. In 1975 it was decided to establish ESA that would have grouped all the organizations. In 1980 formed the Arianespace (France) with the task of developing the Ariane carrier project. ESA has carried out several projects in collaboration with other space agencies, in particular with NASA.

1979 the first launch of the Ariane 1 (picture left). In 1986 the launch of the Giotto probe to study comets Halley and Grigg (picture right)

                                                                                           LIST OF MAJOR ESA MISSIONS

               CryoSat

   (Photo credit ESA)

                                                   EARTH OBSERVATION

 Meteosat-1 1977 Pre-operational meteorological services/ Meteosat-2 1981 Pre-operational meteorological services/ Meteosat-3 1988 Pre-operational meteorological services/ Meteosat-4 1989 Operational meteorology/ Meteosat-5 1991 Operational meteorology /ERS-1 1991 Pre-operational Earth observation radar /Meteosat-6 1993 Operational meteorology /ERS-2 1995 Pre-operational Earth observation radar /Meteosat-7 1997 Operational meteorology /Proba-1 2001 Technology/Earth observation /Envisat 2002 Earth observation /Meteosat-8 2002 Formerly MSG-1, operational meteorology /MSG-2 2005 Operational meteorology /MetOp-A 2006 Meteorological services /GOCE 2009 Gravity field and geoid /SMOS 2009 Soil moisture and ocean salinity /CryoSat-2 2009 Ice sheets and marine ice cover /Swarm 2010 Magnetic field studies /Aeolus 2011 Atmospheric dynamics /Sentinel-1 2011 Operational radar imaging /MSG-3 2011 Operational meteorology /MetOp-B 2012 Polar meteorology  /Sentinel-2 2012 Land monitoring /Sentinel-3 2012 Marine monitoring /EarthCARE 2013 Radiation and cloud interactions /MSG-4 2013 Operational meteorology /MTG-1 2015 Meteosat Third   Generation  /MetOp-C 2016 Polar meteorological services /Sentinel 4 2017 Payload for atmospheric monitoring /Sentinel 5 2020 Payload for atmospheric

                   SUN 

                                                   SUN and SOLAR SYSTEM

ESRO-2 1968 Cosmic and X-radiation from the Sun /ISEE-B 1977 International Sun-Earth Explorer /Ulysses 1990 First spacecraft to overfly the Sun’s poles /SOHO 1995 Studying the Sun’s core, outer corona and solar wind /Cluster & Double 2000 Interaction of the solar wind and Earth’s /Star (with China) 2003/4 magnetosphere /Solar Orbiter 2017 Study of the Sun from close range

Aurora 1968 Polar frontiers of the Van Allen radiation belt /HEOS-1 1968 Interplanetary magnetic fields /Boreas 1969 Polar frontiers of the Van Allen radiation belt /HEOS-2 1972 Interplanetary magnetic field /ESRO-4 1972 Upper atmosphere temperature variations /GEOS-1 1977 Plasma particles and waves in Earth’s magnetic field /GEOS-2 1978 Movement in Earth’s upper atmosphere /Giotto 1985 Fly-past of Comet Halley and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup /Cassini-Huygens 1997 Exploring Saturn’s system and descending onto its largest moon Titan /Mars Express 2003 Studying the atmosphere, surface and subsurface of the Red Planet /SMART-1 2003 Testing solar-electric propulsion and studying the Moon’s surface /Huygens 2004 Probing the atmosphere and surface of Titan /Rosetta 2004 Orbiter of Comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko and Philae lander /Venus Express 2005 Exploring Venus and its atmosphere /BepiColombo 2014 Exploring the planet Mercury

                Arthemis

   

                                                                 ASTRONOMY

TD-1A 1972 Measuring ultraviolet radiation from 15000 stars /Cos-B 1975 Gamma-ray studies /IUE 1978 Ultraviolet observations of 10 000 celestial objects /Exosat 1983 X-ray emissions of astronomical phenomena /Hipparcos 1989 Position measurements of 120 000 stars /Hubble Space 1990 Orbiting astronomical observatory Telescope /ISO 1995 Exploring the infrared Universe /XMM-Newton 1999 The most sensitive X-ray observatory ever /Integral 2002 Observing the most energetic phenomena in gamma rays /Herschel 2009 Infrared emissions from stars and galaxies /Planck 2009 Studying the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation /LISA Pathfinder 2011 Technology test for LISA mission (launch 2017) /Gaia 2011 Precision mapping of one billion stars /JWST 2013 Second-generation space telescope ESA

                                                         TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

OTS-2 12 1978 Demonstrating European telecoms technologies /Marecs-A 1981 Maritime communications /ECS-1 1983 Operational communications satellite /ECS-2 1984 Operational communications satellite /Marecs-B2 1984 Maritime communications /ECS-4 1987 Operational communications satellite /ECS-5 1988 Operational communications satellite /Olympus 1989 Telecoms technology demonstration /Artemis 2001 Telecommunications demonstration /AlphaSat 2011 Next-generation telecoms satellite /SmallGEO 2011‒12 Geostationary telecoms./Esa Navigation System (30 satellites) : GALILEO - Giove-A 2005, Giove-B 2008, Giove-A2 2010

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