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The gaseous planets are those placed between Mars and the Kuiper Belt and moving away from the Sun they are : Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (figure left). they have a similar structure and are all larger than Rocky ones and emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun 

NASA

                                                   JUPITER

 

mass

1.9 1027 kg /Mt 317,938

Rotation period (sidereal day)

9.84 hours

Equatorial Radius

71492 km

Solar Revolution period

11.86 years

Volume

27 1425.23 10 cm3 /1316 Vt

Solar day period (two sunrises later)

 

Acceleration due to gravity

22.87 m/s2

rings

1

Average internal temperature of clouds

-121° c

 

 

Internal average temperature

30° c

Satellites

63

Average speed orbital

13.1 km/s

Atmosphere

H (90%), He (10%)

Perihelion orbit

740.9 106 km

Tilt the Equator than the orbit

25° 11 '

Aphelion orbit

815.7 106 km

 

 

Eccentricity of the orbit

0.0483

 

 

Orbital inclination  respect to the ecliptic

1,308°

 

    

       The Galilean satellites, from left: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto

  

Jupiter is the largest planet with a diameter one-tenth of the solar and a mass of approximately 1300 times the terrestrial. It has a thick atmosphere that extends for approximately 1000 Km that don't allow us to see the surface. The planet rotates around its axis very quickly making in less than ten hours one full turn. This results in strong currents and violent weather phenomena such as the great red spot that represents a hurricane. This hurricane has lasted for 3 centuries. Also the rotation contributes to the formation of an intense magnetic field. The surface of the planet is made up essentially of liquid hydrogen and helium while inside we meet hydrogen metallic and helium that enclose a rocky core. There is a differential rotation from the equator to the Poles either on liquid surface and in the atmosphere seen from rotational bands marked visible through a telescope. The Poles have a crush more pronounced and globally the planet emits more energy than it absorbs from the Sun. It has a ring off 4 km and approximately 6000 km away from the highest clouds. There are 63 satellites including 4 large and spherical: Io, Europa, Ganymede (bigger than Mercury), Callisto.

  

                                                   SATURN

 

mass

5,688 1026 kg /95.1 Mt

Rotation period (sidereal day)

10,233 hours

Equatorial Radius

60268 km

Solar Revolution period

29,458 years

Volume

27 817.67 10 cm3 /755 Vt

Solar day period (two sunrises later)

 

Acceleration due to gravity

9.05 m/s2

rings

8

Average internal temperature of clouds

-125° c

 

 

Internal average temperature

-180° c

Satellites

49

Average speed orbital

9.6 km/s

Atmosphere

H2 (96%), He (4%)

Perihelion orbit

1347 106 km

Tilt the Equator than the orbit

26.7°

Aphelion orbit

1507 106 km

 

 

Eccentricity of the orbit

0.0483

 

 

Orbital inclination  respect to the ecliptic

2,488°

 

Saturn is similar to Jupiter in composition and structure with the same phenomenology. But it is smaller, farther from the Sun and has a complex system of rings. Among its largest moons is Titan that's larger than Mercury

                                                             URANUS

 

mass

8,686 1025 kg /14.6 Mt.

Rotation period (sidereal day) retrograde

17.9 hours ago

Equatorial Radius

25560 km

Solar Revolution period

84.01 years

Volume

72.56 1027 cm3 /Vt 67

Solar day period (two sunrises later)

 

Acceleration due to gravity

9.05 m/s2

rings

11

Average internal temperature of clouds

-193° c

 

 

Internal average temperature

-180° c

Satellites

29

Average speed orbital

6.8 km/s

Atmosphere

H2 (82.5%), He (15.2%), CH4 (2.4%)

Perihelion orbit

2735 106 km

Tilt the Equator than the orbit

97.9°

Aphelion orbit

3004 106 km

 

 

Eccentricity of the orbit

0.046

 

 

Orbital inclination  respect to the ecliptic

0.774°

 

 

Uranus has a retrograde rotation and the particularity of having the axis tilted 82° to the plane of the orbit and the Equator is almost perpendicular to the direction of motion around the Sun. It looks grey – green – blue is due to the presence of frozen methane clouds  – 200° C in the atmosphere in addition to hydrogen, helium and methane. There is a mantle composed of water, methane and ammonia ice around a rocky core. It has a system of 11 rings and 29 moons, of which  5 spherical and of a certain size: Miranda, Ariel, Unbriel, Titania, Oberon. It has a magnetic field less than terrestrial with an axis at an angle of 35° from the axis of rotation.

               Triton with Neptune back

                                                      NEPTUNE

 

mass

1,024 1026 kg /17.2 Meters

Rotation period (sidereal day)

16.11 hours

Equatorial Radius

24746 km

Solar Revolution period

164.79 years

Volume

61.73 1027 cm3 /57 Vt

Solar day period (two sunrises later)

 

Acceleration due to gravity

11 m/s2

rings

6

Average internal temperature of clouds

-170° c

 

 

Internal average temperature

-210° c

Satellites

13

Average speed orbital

5.45 km/s

Atmosphere

H2 (85%), He (13%) CH4 (2%)

Perihelion orbit

4456 106 km

Tilt the Equator than the orbit

28.8°

Aphelion orbit

4537 106 km

 

 

Eccentricity of the orbit

0.0097

 

 

Orbital inclination  respect to the ecliptic

1,774°

 

 

Neptune is the last planet, at momemt, with an orbit such that at certain times is farther from the Sun than the dwarf planet Pluto. His appearance with blue streaks is due to the presence of clouds of hydrogen sulfide and methane clouds. It has a mantle of water, methane and ammonia ice and a core of silicates. It develops a magnetic field less than terrestrial and a system of 4 rings. Has 13 satellites of which the largest are Proteus, Nereid and Triton. The surface and the whole planet is tormented by strong winds blowing parallel to the Equator and can reach up to 2000 km/h.

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