The Russian Space Agency Rosaviakosmos descends directly from the Soviet Union space agency since the Soviet Union broke up between 1990 and 1991 with its countless achievements. It did the history of Astronautics end of Space exploration during the last century. He has collaborated and worked with most of the space agencies of the world sharing projects and/or making available its carriers. Now there are many missions already concluded with NASA and ESA.

The Russians Kosmodrom  currently are those of Baikonur in Kazakhstan, from which depart most Soyuz TMA and Progress, of Plesetek with many Proton rocket launches, and Yasny.


Pictured to the right. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (September 17, 1857 – September 19, 1935)



Professor Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, born 1857, can be considered the father of modern rocketry and Astronautics. In 1883 he published the journal "The outer space" submitted calculations on rocket propulsion. His studies led him to publish in 1903 the treaty "exploration of cosmic space by means of reaction engines" where he predicted: multistage propulsion of missiles with proposals for missile models, utilizing cryogenic propulsion propellants as hydrogen and liquid oxygen, basic equations for flight in the cosmos of missiles to reach the Moon or other celestial body and its calculation of escape velocity from the Earth or other celestial body in the solar system. In the 1920s, Friedrich Zandler continued thes studies of  Tsiolkovsky and made a petrol and compressed air rocket . He founded the Group GRID made up of eight items including Sergjev Korolev which aimed to investigate engines and Jet flight. In 1933 along with Korolev they launched their first liquid propellant rocket. After Second World War Valentin Glusko was able to build the first engine at Kerosene and liquid oxygen, the Soviet RD-100 which became the most widely used engine.

   Rocket N1 both side pictures

Sergey Korolev  was born in Zhytomyr in Ukraine on January 12, 1906 and was the engineer who led the Soviet Union into space. He was persecuted by the Communist regime with a sentence of ten years in prison on charges of disloyalty in 1938. In fact he served two years in prison and then be used in Soviet military rocket program. Only in 1957 was completely rehabilitated. The Germany with V1 and V2 had achieved rocketry technological supremacy and at the end of the Second World War both the Soviets and the Americans recruited many scientists, technicians German prisoners and they took eway everything including some rockets. So Korolev made the rocket R-1 similar to the German V-2 and continued until the completion of the R-7 Semyorka, the first ballistic missile with nuclear warhead intercontinental equipped with side thrusters dropping once exhausted their ability to boost. Korolev the May 27, 1954 proposed to the Ministry of Defence to put in orbit some satellites.

Korolev Designed and coordinated all the space activities as the launch of the first satellite Sputnik, the Vostok manned, robotic probe Lunik and Venera. He also designed the N1 rocket that was supposed to carry a crew on the Moon, but he died in Moscow on January 14, 1966 before completing the project. The Russia to honor him gave his name to the Control Centre of space missions in Moscow and laid his ashes at the Kremlin's wall. The N1 project continued and the first trial flight took place on February 21, 1969 that failed shortly after launch do to a fire developed at engines. The rocket was lost with the last hopes of anticipating NASA landing on the moon. Another attempt on July 3, 1969 but the missile exploded after takeoff. After other failed attempts the program N1 was finally cancelled in 1974.


                             SPUTNIK INTO SPACE


The October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 first satellite in the world from the base of Baykanur in kazakhstan with a carrier rocket modified R7. The satellite had a spherical aluminium capsule of 58 cm in diameter with 4 Rod antennas 2.90 m long. The capsule contained two transmitters that handed down for three weeks. After 92 days and 1440 orbits made in the January 4, 1958 the satellite disintegrates reentering the atmosphere

                              SPACECRAFT LUNIK


The January 2, 1959 launched the first automatic probe Lunik 1 towards the Moon


The September 12, 1959 first probe to the Moon, the Lunik 2 (side photo) that before crashing on the Moon snapped photographs.


The October 4, 1959 launch of probe Lunik 3 and 29 first photographs of the far side of the Moon from a distance of 65,000 miles



The November 3, 1957 launch of Sputnik 2 carrying dog Laika (picture right), the first living creature into orbit on a journey of no return as it was planned that the satellite would have disintegrated at re-entry. Laika died in orbit for a defect of the survival system.


The August 19, 1960 launch of Sputnik 5 (Korabl Sputnik – 2) prototype of Vostok, carrying the two little dog Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and other plants. All were recovered alive after an orbital flight lasted around 18 hours




The April 12, 1961 the Vostok 1 was launched carrying Yuri Gagarin the first man in space. On the morning Radio Moscow announced : "today 12 April took place the first flight into space of a spacecraft with one man on board. The astronaut is YURI GAGARIN". That flight entered in the history of humanity, it was a risky and difficult adventure where the pilot put his own life at stake. The Vostok consisted of two parts: a spherical cockpit with 3 door with a diameter of 2.30 m and a service module of a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 2.58 m. The seat of Gagarin was automatic ejection-type that acts at 7000 m from ground. So Gagarin during the last phase of re-entry was thrown out of the cockpit with seat and landed regularly with parachutes open after 108 minutes prior to departure. The March 27, 1968 Gagarin died in a training flight aboard a two-seater Mig, along with Vladimir Sergheievic. No automatic ejection were started but they piloted the plane to the last. The various surveys conducted have not yet well explained with certainty the dynamics of the accident.


Valentina Tereshkova on June 16, 1963 takes off. She was first woman in space, aboard Vostok 6 (picture right). Two days before the Vostok 5 departed  carrying v. Bykowsky. The two vostok met several times in orbit doing radio links between them. On 19 June the vostok came back on ground. The Tereshkova did not present any health problem and became mother shortly after one year, marrying with the pilot of Vostok 3 A. Nikolayev

                                    FIRST CREW WITH THREE ASTRONAUTS 

On the 1 October 12, 1964 departed from Baykonour for the first time a Voskod that  had a crew of three people: v. Komarov, b. Yegorov, k. Feoktistov (fig. left mission patch). They Had made several technical amendments to the Vostok as the Elimination of removable seat system braking rockets for reentry



The March 18, 1965 Alexey Leonov makes the first human in space walk from the Voskhod 2. Aboard P. Belyayev only. Leonov donned the suit while stretching outside a cylinder long 2 m and diameter 1 m that would have been his relief tunnels. Leonov spent 10 minutes inside the tunnel before opening the door and start moving tied to a safety cord 5 m long. The cord inside contained the connection wires radio with the capsule and the suit was fitted with a shoulder bag for oxygen. Leonov moved in space for 12 minutes and tried to enter the tunnel. But the suit was too pressurised so that he had to come to head in the entire tunnel once he decompress the suit a little and turning with feet down and hands that can now close the outer door. After decompressing Leonov returned to Vostok and returns to Earth, landing in a forest to 2000 km from the planned site do to technical mishaps. On the ground they were forced to spend a night in the capsule before being recovered the next morning. (follows )

                                                                                 ARTISTIC AND LITERARY PROPERTY RESERVED