PROPULSION-ROCKET ENGINES
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          Propulsion systems 

    ROCKET ENGINES

 

        Historical introduction

Historically, early attempts to develop a rocket can be traced back to the Chinese that used to do a black powder about on 300 B.C. They were the forerunners of today's Fireworks. Provided by Tsiolkovsky towards the end of the 800, the modern rockets originated when Robert Godard linked a de Laval nozzle to the combustion chamber of a rocket engine, significantly increasing thrust. This technique was later used in the V2 rockets by W. Von Braun. The V2 were the first completely rockets in the history but unlucky it was used for war by the Nazis against the cities the people.

                                      STORY 

K.E.Tsiolkovsky Russia(September 17, 1857 – September 19, 1935) Science teacher sensed the importance of liquid propellant instead of solids, claiming the use of hydrocarbon with liquid oxygen in  rockets that were used to explore the cosmos. Also calculated that an object needs a speed of 28000 km/h to get into orbit, the first escape velocity

       ROCKETS VECTORS            USA           EUROPE - ESA          RUSSIA - UKRAINA                ASIA      

                                                DESCRIPTION

A rocket is used when it is not available in the environment the oxidant (oxidizing). This takes place in space and high layers of the atmosphere, so it is necessary that the missile carry along both the fuel (Kerosene, hydrogen, etc.) than the oxidant (liquid oxygen, etc.). Most of the rockets are chemists and can be of two types:

1) Solid propellant - The propellant is generally a mixture of fuel and oxidizer in solid form called grain encased in a single tank as in Solid Rochet Space Shuttle Booster

2) Liquid propellant - The propellants are enclosed in two separate reservoirs in the liquid state as in the case of the Space Shuttle main engines that use hydrogen and liquid oxygen.

In general, the chemical reaction occurs between the fuel and the oxide into the combustion chamber and produces very high temperature gases expelled from one or more nozzles placed in the lower end of the rocket. These gases expelled produce a force that boost on the combustion chamber in the opposite direction to that of the outgoing Jet nozzles, in accordance with Newton's third law. This thrust is in charge of rocket movement forward. A better description is obtained by applying the principle of conservation of momentum to the missile achieving the following equation:

Robert Hutchings Goddard  (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) Professor and scientist, was a pioneer of liquid propulsion rockets. He Launched the first rocket on 16 March 1926. From 1930 to 1935 he launched rockets that reached 885 km/h. A NASA Space Center is named after him

Photo - Robert Goddard, 16 March 1926 next to the launch of the first liquid-propellant rocket

                                     m dV/dt = Fr + Vu dm/dt     

              

 where m is the mass, V is the velocity and dV/dt is the acceleration of the missile, Vu is the velocity of gas expulsion, Fr is the sum of external agents on the missile forces (gravity, aerodynamic resistance), dm/dt is the change in mass of the missile over time. This formula means that the force acting on the missile m dV/dt is equal to the sum of the external forces Fr with that due to the mass variation Vu dm/dt                       

The strategy used for large rockets vectors as in Astronautics, is that multistage, were the propulsion system is organized in several stages with their fuel tanks and engines. The stadium once consumed all of its fuel, is expelled from the rocket that will be pushed by the next stage. The rockets lead atop a payload consisting of satellites, probes, crews, ... inside a compartment that opens at the right time to release its contents.

Herman Oberth (1894-1989)

He felt the need of multistage rockets for space exploration. He founded a group of scientists, with assistant Von Braun. They worked for V2. in Germany and then, after the war in the USA

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977)

His main achievements were the V2 and the SATURN 5 Rocket

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