THE SOLAR SYSTEM
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The solar system is a planetary system with single star called Sun placed outwards along an arm (Orion Arm) of the spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. The solar system revolves around the Galactic core and moves deep space along with the Galaxy. The planets are currently ranked 8, all orbiting around the Sun whose movements are described by Kepler's laws with good accuracy. Starting from the Sun the planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

The International Astronomical Union in 2006 has defined three types of bodies orbiting the Sun : planets, dwarf planets, small systems of bodies.

The planets - Celestial bodies that orbit the Sun and not around a larger body, have sufficient mass to be spherical in shape and with no small objects in orbit in the immediate vicinity since these already possibly fell and disintegrated on the planet. Pluto is not a planet because it hasn't cleared its immediate vicinity to many objects in the Kuiper belt.

    

The dwarf planets  are like planets but they are still keeping  nearby objects. They were classified Pluto, Carone, Ceres, Eris (scattered disc). To which you will add probably Sedna (Oort Cloud), Quasar, and Orcus, Quaoar and Varuna in the Kuiper belt.

                           Small systems of small bodies including :

The satellites – Bodies orbiting around a planet. There are many (168 classified) and of various sizes. The largest is Jupiter's moon Ganymede, which is larger than Mercury.

                         Planetary Rings – Consisting of dust and small objects orbiting the planet.

Comets – The name comes from ancient Greek and means the subject has hair. The orbital period around the Sun can vary from decades to millions of years. The Comet is formed from the nucleus and foliage (atmosphere). The core is made of rock, dust and ice and can have a diameter that varies from about 500 m to 50 Miles. The foliage is due to sublimation of ice layers that surround the Comet when it nears the Sun. The phenomenon becomes more intense near the Sun. The foliage, mainly as a result of the pressure exerted by the solar wind, give rise to the tail. Heavier elements as the dust foliage to give rise to a tail which suffers more elliptical orbit while lighter elements are most affected by gas pressure of the solar wind and directed in the opposite direction to the Sun. So you can distinguish two tails when the Comet orbit close to the Sun at perihelion.

           

 

Asteroids or minor planets - Bodies with a diameter ranging from a few kilometers to about 1000 kilometers and an irregular shape. They are all located between Mars and Jupiter. 

NASA

          

                               Meteorites – Small Bodies in the solar system.

 Solar wind and Solar powder

The Dust in our solar system are very fine, consisting of heavy elements and have multiple origins.

The Solar Wind is generated continuously by the Sun that radiates elementary particles (primarily  the 91% from electrons and protons, 8% helium nuclei, and 1% from nuclei of heavier elements, etc.), electromagnetic waves across the spectrum including gamma rays. Interacts with the terrestrial magnetic field and causes several phenomena on Earth like the Aurora Borealis. The solar wind can be confined within an area called the heliosphere beyond which  Galactic interstellar actions dominate. The border zone of the solar system is called the heliopause.

Fig. NASA credit

Second best of asteroids called the Kuiper Belt located beyond Neptune also containing Pluto

    

Scattered Disc – It's placed Between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud

Oort Cloud – Big cloud of comets and asteroids that envelops the entire solar system. The Sun's gravitational action should extend beyond the Oort Cloud.

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